%PDF-1.5 %���� Girl (8,133 words) no match in snippet view article find links to article creates a bias against females. (�m��Mg�3κ���P��|s.K�v��f�Aq [���O;Э��c�G�[�@�U�J��0-vHG�Y-������*sC�d�k�,��� �L蠈' MY� T�896����r�i����:bn���Z�d���$�[��Yu�: ��XG�ڏ׺�U�.���h��,��[�N��c �t_���o��b���G�J-8c����g~��Y�p���bn�H�����#Ϊ[o ]�[��D�$w�''I�"�'��Nh�;��2p��� endstream endobj 1482 0 obj <>stream The gap is large and persistent over time in both rural and urban regions, although the overall gender gap in education has declined signi cantly over time. This is the result of many factors, such as the Confucian cultural tradition, the socioeconomic system, and gender ideology. �S��x _#goQ�bF���L,x��A�I?�H�WLFM��l6�[wt�In1�H(����4����x�L�Y�E�c&�?l���+�P�ş��n�0L�G8����q3���ak��}i�Z@Jޔl!0��IG0��� Negative consequences for girls of son preference and parental choice have received relatively little attention (exceptions include Edlund ��w�jt^/��b�����T��z��A�ݘ�����|��� ���p���V�~ E:d����Y1��q\� �n�zs�n (����T Q����@Tm�+i_����g'* Sons are preferred because they have a higher wage-earning capacity, especially in agrarian economies, they continue the family line, are generally recipients of inheritance and … x��Y]o�}��0o�.bF��/����n��b�M�@w���r���hH����wf(ʒ�ys9g��p������w���?��߁���U �� %PDF-1.5 This article draws on a survey conducted in six provinces in summer 2008 to investigate the determinants of son preference in rural china. SON PREFERENCE AND FERTILITY IN CHINA DUDLEY L. POSTON JR Department of Sociology, TexasA&MUniversity, College Station, TX 77843, USA Summary. The preference for sons in contemporary China is well known, but most studies have focused on the deficit in the supply of brides and its negative consequences for men (e.g., Wei and Zhang 2011; Edlund et al. �C�|���r�/�.��]��I�R�A�>�+eTjDA6OF;�4�wdk*o(/8��^I��� ?~�Q��o��6I�%��.��=�G]i��Ƶ�vq�s��|"�(���]t )�b:O��ϧwB�_�("��.�A���Q?�$b}I�j�c�M�}�ݳ���7�P������,$�A�� T�4�۬T�P�[�wy��|�0OxQ������d h�bbd``b`�$���� H�1��=@�#kH #1��?|? The authors first review the rural_urban and parity differences and the recent trend in China’s sex ratio at birth (SRB). ��h4Py�HD�,��e"�t�CT��B%F�e�]DBjd���b�J�Cg�3�%&n����dL�L���eZDz�@>$ߑ^���@�(��VCR��#y� K7��,\����`C���쥁� '����XɜOB_�ίNw� v�m�TI An emotive account of the preference for male babies in China gives a misleading impression, believes Thérèse Hesketh on the basis of her experience as a paediatrician there For thousands of years a preference for sons has been prevalent in an arc of countries from east Asia through south Asia to the Middle East and north Africa. �"q?���|���L/0evw j�� Son preference is often thought to be an important cause of imbalance in the sex ratio at birth [3–5]. endstream endobj 1 0 obj <>/MediaBox[0 0 595.32 841.92]/Parent 1475 0 R/Resources<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 1/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 2 0 obj <>stream In China, son preference and sex-selective abortion have led to 32 million excess males under the age of 20 years. 0 Preference for sons continues to be a factor … This paper examines the effect of son preference on the hazards of having a second and a third birth. Son preference has persisted in the face of sweeping economic and social changes in China, India, and the Republic of Korea. Chapter 9 examines son preference and its effect on the male marriage squeeze in China. %���� The one-child policy is often shown as the main reason for son preference in China. Sons are preferred because they have a higher … Son Preference in India Reeve Vanneman Sonalde Desai Kriti Vikram University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 Abstract An abundant literature has documented son preferences in large parts of Korea, China, India, and the Near East. A collective model generates predictions concerning the impact of the birth of sons on family behaviour when son preference is treated as a premium in the father’s utility function. x��Z]k\7}ﯘ��E+i��!��n�P��������`���M�}��~Z�U�b�p=W���Όt�CL����H�&5�8�H�Tl$�Ĩ�P)T���^̻��=Ã%��G�.Y]2c_Ԃs��)�j Es�� Zl%��j� JUK]W���m,a3>��a�̀�Q���0�jc����a�\�F�@ɳb)�R(:saJ[��Q�U2%����3�J�Ԃ�aً�4�[���̢;��r���"[�r��2��qP�oH�@Zl��p֙A�$�j��t����5Z )lc�@��1���Pi�T8�|���b��D����[kTlo�DU�Y`,^c�"U�#����>Q� FRj�+T��g�E�ͬJ-*R�K�c(�����2R+Re�S+Y���6��'�Çf1�̳�;k ��lΦ���k���&�7�M� ^끕��4��1���ꂙ���Dy3CU7�\�Vl;-��+-h��6�lg �([Y*ۺL�G�h��~V��c��f�ۉ~���^�_���c�yB[ϯ/�߾^L��U��C/�=]on�����x��w����.h�ry=���c�w Ł#�X�f��V����ϷK�}�zC�Wf?Y���}L[���K�s��my�/����oh��q=����C���$��SNN��So�2;�=&�x9;��J8�$�I-��$���S�N�V;o=Iu��xҏ�yy 1484 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<8E9164A39961F044845D0BECC256F983><4A1D0117A44BF94FA719D5B3BCD2379B>]/Index[1477 18]/Info 1476 0 R/Length 55/Prev 305277/Root 1478 0 R/Size 1495/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Policy-makers are addressing some causes of the high sex ratio at birth, but more could be done. Qiao, Xiaochun (2004). 4 Using a small subset of a population from Anhui … A preference for sons in China, India and South Korea combined with easy access to sex-selective abortions has led to a significant imbalance between … The roots of son-preference lie deep in Chinese culture. x�cbd�g`b`8 $؟ ��@��H0[ �@�3�� $� &Ƭ� m����#X �F z _@ � 1230 0 obj x��X۲�(�����+Il�>g�v�vUSsbХ[Ę��5+�e�o@�.0��ѥ���d��S�m We extend our analysis by exploring specific aspects of variation within patrilineal family culture. show less strong son preference (Hua 2001), as do the Islamic groups in Western China. 1229 0 obj The preference for sons is rooted in feudal views that men are superior to women. Traditionally, the bloodline passes through the male side. 2013). Is there still preference for male offspring in modern China and who is in fact responsible for the continuity of this trend? China and India have a very strong son preference. Preference for sons dates back to the Warring States Period, in about 500 B.C. `����1e��������IG�����ɧ#����� �%��B���1%m��כ?�.8���+a���4��w������R;��mϿ}?������]˾^M�|nz��n8� ��7�&�_�^.Ӵܬ�E�.�����R��.�ρi�^���}��Ï?��Ӫ�;Z����/���=���GN=��7�����.�:�ڥ���v�eh��]�v�eh���]�V+��=�x1��n}�b"}�b��q?���m�O!&�����zbb��!&��bb��!&���������+�7/-z��/_Z��PZt��'��-�)�Ewi�[OCZi1�ŐCZi1��C�x���J]B�C> Although the effect of son preference is not the most important, urbanization, education, and occupation have not fundamentally changed its influence on women's compliance. A 2011 Gallop poll revealed that 40 percent of American would prefer to have a son if they only had one child, compared to 28 percent who would prefer a daughter. stream endobj )�����dB� ��Io�9�/a@�0� M��yA ����:�>d��c�i�y���a-" �&�t���[��r� Ng������ׂ|S��9JǴlrԱ���s�΂O��u��>��.�ʐ 5���0-�h�MZ���'u }0$"!% Back then, it was shown as a temporary measure implemented in order to reduce the number of members in a family and to have a stronger economic growth, as a long-term obje… In addition, the effect of son preference on the compliance is not altered by government control. About 37–45% of China's missing females may have been missing at birth. endstream endobj 1483 0 obj <>stream Son Preference and Fertility in Korea, China and the United States | Min, Hosik | ISBN: 9783639176407 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. This literature has suggested an equally abundant array of theories about family, economic, and political causes that may sustain son preferences. u̓��V�����LĽ�7T��_)����$�&E�)?_ E��I�&A�*��`���^�#�8-cO�qq�wqh���*L���Th{�O:u�I3'��x���Ds���Z�#ӆx�YT� This is suggested by the ways in which the diffusion of ultrasound technologies into China's agricultural provinces has mirrored patterns in the timing, increase, and spatial spread of masculinized sex ratios (Banister 2004). 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